Pseudo-Aristotle Problemata Mechanica 1831 Berlin el arist_mecha_080_el_1831.xml 080.xml

*qauma/zetai tw=n me\n kata\ fu/sin sumbaino/ntwn, o(/swn a)gnoei=tai to\ ai)/tion, tw=n de\ para\ fu/sin, o(/sa gi/netai dia\ te/xnhn pro\s to\ sumfe/ron toi=s a)nqrw/pois. e)n polloi=s ga\r h( fu/sis u(penanti/on pro\s to\ xrh/simon h(mi=n poiei=: h( me\n ga\r fu/sis a)ei\ to\n au)to\n e)/xei tro/pon kai\ a(plw=s, to\ de\ xrh/simon metaba/llei pollaxw=s.

o(/tan ou)=n de/h| ti para\ fu/sin pra=cai, dia\ to\ xalepo\n a)pori/an pare/xei kai\ dei=tai te/xnhs. dio\ kai\ kalou=men th=s te/xnhs to\ pro\s ta\s toiau/tas a)pori/as bohqou=n me/ros mhxanh/n. kaqa/per ga\r e)poi/hsen *)antifw=n o( poihth/s, ou(/tw kai\ e)/xei: te/xnh| ga\r kratou=men, w(=n fu/sei nikw/meqa. toiau=ta de/ e)stin e)n oi(=s ta/ te e)la/ttona kratei= tw=n meizo/nwn, kai\ ta\ r(oph\n e)/xonta mikra\n kinei= ba/rh mega/la, kai\ pa/nta sxedo\n o(/sa tw=n problhma/twn mhxanika\ prosagoreu/omen.

e)/sti de\ tau=ta toi=s fusikoi=s problh/masin ou)/te tau)ta\ pa/mpan ou)/te kexwrisme/na li/an, a)lla\ koina\ tw=n te maqhmatikw=n qewrhma/twn kai\ tw=n fusikw=n: to\ me\n ga\r w(\s dia\ tw=n maqhmatikw=n dh=lon, to\ de\ peri\ o(\ dia\ tw=n fusikw=n.

perie/xetai de\ tw=n a)poroume/nwn e)n tw=| ge/nei tou/tw| ta\ peri\ to\n moxlo/n. a)/topon ga\r ei)=nai dokei= to\ kinei=sqai me/ga ba/ros u(po\ mikra=s i)sxu/os, kai\ tau=ta meta\ ba/rous plei/onos: o(\ ga\r a)/neu moxlou= kinei=n ou) du/natai/ tis, tou=to tau)to\ ba/ros, proslabw\n e)/ti to\ tou= moxlou= ba/ros, kinei= qa=tton. pa/ntwn de\ tw=n toiou/twn e)/xei th=s ai)ti/as th\n a)rxh\n o( ku/klos. kai\ tou=to eu)lo/gws sumbe/bhken: e)k me\n ga\r qaumasiwte/rou sumbai/nein ti qaumasto\n ou)de\n a)/topon,

qaumasiw/taton de\ to\ ta)nanti/a gi/nesqai met' a)llh/lwn. o( de\ ku/klos sune/sthken e)k toiou/twn: eu)qu\s ga\r e)k kinoume/nou te gege/nhtai kai\ me/nontos, w(=n h( fu/sis e)sti\n u(penanti/a a)llh/lois. w(/st' e)ntau=qa e)/stin e)pible/yasin h(=tton qauma/zein ta\s sumbainou/sas u(penantiw/seis peri\ au)to/n. prw=ton me\n ga\r th=| periexou/sh| grammh=| to\n ku/klon, pla/tos ou)qe\n e)xou/sh|, ta)nanti/a pws prosemfai/netai, to\ koi=lon kai\ to\ kurto/n. tau=ta de\ die/sthken a)llh/lwn o(\n tro/pon to\ me/ga kai\ to\ mikro/n: e)kei/nwn te ga\r me/son to\ i)/son kai\ tou/twn to\ eu)qu/. dio\ metaba/llonta ei)s a)/llhla ta\ me\n a)nagkai=on i)/sa gene/sqai pro/teron h)\ tw=n a)/krwn o(poteronou=n, th\n de\ grammh\n eu)qei=an, o(/tan e)k kurth=s ei)s koi=lon h)\ pa/lin e)k tau/ths gi/nhtai kurth\ kai\ periferh/s. e(\n me\n ou)=n tou=to tw=n a)to/pwn u(pa/rxei peri\ to\n ku/klon,

deu/teron de\ o(/ti a(/ma kinei=tai ta\s e)nanti/as kinh/seis: a(/ma ga\r ei)s to\n e)/mprosqen kinei=tai to/pon kai\ to\n o)/pisqen. h(/ te gra/fousa grammh\ to\n ku/klon w(sau/tws e)/xei: e)c ou(= ga\r a)/rxetai to/pou to\ pe/ras au)th=s, ei)s to\n au)to\n tou=ton to/pon e)/rxetai pa/lin: sunexw=s ga\r kinoume/nhs au)th=s to\ e)/sxaton pa/lin a)ph=lqe prw=ton, w(/ste kai\ fanero\n o(/ti mete/balen e)nteu=qen. dio/, kaqa/per ei)/rhtai pro/teron, ou)de\n a)/topon to\ pa/ntwn ei)=nai tw=n qauma/twn au)to\n a)rxh/n.

ta\ me\n ou)=n peri\ to\n zugo\n gino/mena ei)s to\n ku/klon a)na/getai, ta\ de\ peri\ to\n moxlo\n ei)s to\n zugo/n, ta\ d' a)/lla pa/nta sxedo\n ta\ peri\ ta\s kinh/seis ta\s mhxanika\s ei)s to\n moxlo/n. e)/ti de\ dia\ to\ mia=s ou)/shs th=s e)k tou= ke/ntrou grammh=s mhqe\n e(/teron e(te/rw| fe/resqai tw=n shmei/wn tw=n e)n au)th=| i)sotaxw=s, a)ll' a)ei\ to\ tou= me/nontos pe/ratos porrw/teron o)\n qa=tton, polla\ tw=n qaumazome/nwn sumbai/nei peri\ ta\s kinh/seis tw=n ku/klwn: peri\ w(=n e)n toi=s e(pome/nois problh/masin e)/stai dh=lon.

dia\ de\ to\ ta\s e)nanti/as kinh/seis a(/ma kinei=sqai to\n ku/klon, kai\ to\ me\n e(/teron th=s diame/trou tw=n a)/krwn, e)f' ou(= to\ *a, ei)s tou)/mprosqen kinei=sqai, qa/teron de/, e)f' ou(= to\ *b, ei)s tou)/pisqen, kataskeua/zousi/ tines w(/st' a)po\ mia=s kinh/sews pollou\s u(penanti/ous a(/ma kinei=sqai ku/klous, w(/sper ou(\s a)natiqe/asin e)n toi=s i(eroi=s poih/santes troxi/skous xalkou=s te kai\ sidhrou=s. ei) ga\r ei)/h tou= *a*b ku/klou a(pto/menos e(/teros ku/klos e)f' ou(= *g*d, tou= ku/klou tou= e)f' ou(= *a*b kinoume/nhs th=s diame/trou ei)s tou)/mprosqen, kinhqh/setai h( *g*d ei)s tou)/pisqen tou= ku/klou tou= e)f' ou(= *a, kinoume/nhs th=s diame/trou peri\ to\ au)to/. ei)s tou)nanti/on a)/ra kinhqh/setai o( e)f' ou(= *g*d ku/klos tw=| e)f' ou(= to\ *a*b: kai\ pa/lin au)to\s to\n e)fech=s, e)f' ou(= *e*z, ei)s tou)nanti/on au(tw=| kinh/sei dia\ th\n au)th\n ai)ti/an.