| Alberti, Leone Battista Architecture 1755, tr. Leoni, James |
of the Branca Ursina.
Upon the Mutules lies
the Corona, which is allowed four Minutes,
and this Corona consists of a Plat-band or Drip
and a Cima Recta, which last takes up one
Minute and a Half.
If you are to have a Pe
diment over your Building, all the Members of
the Cornice must be transferred to that, and
every Member in the Pediment must correspond
with the same in the Cornice, and answer to
the same Perpendiculars and Proportions.
is only this Difference between Pediments and
the first Cornices, that in Pediments the high
est Member of the Cornice is always the Drip,
which in the Doric Order is a Cima-reversa,
four Minutes in Height, whereas this Drip or
Cima has never Place in a Cornice that is to
have a Pediment over it; but in those which
are to have no Pediment it is constantly used.
But of Pediments we shall speak by and by.
This was the Entablature of the Dorians. The
Ionians were of Opinion, and not without Rea
son, that the Proportion of the Architrave
ought to encrease according to the Bigness of
the Column; which must certainly have a good
Effect both here and in the Doric Order too.
The Rules they gave for enlarging this Pro
portion were as follows: When the Column
was twenty Foot high the Architrave ought to
be the thirteenth Part of that Length; but
when the Column was to be five-and-twenty
Foot, the Architrave should be the twelfth
Part of the Length of the Column.
if the Column was to be thirty Foot high, the
Architrave was to be the eleventh Part, and for
higher Columns in the same Gradation.
Ionic Architrave, besides its Cymaise, consisted
of three Fascias, and the Whole was divided
into nine Parts, two of which were allowed to
the Cymaise, which was an upright one.
Remainder below the Cymaise they divided in
to twelve Parts, three of which went to the
lower, four to the middle, and five to the up
per Fascia, which lies just below the Cymaise.
Some made these Fascias without any Sort of
Mouldings between them, but others made
them with Mouldings, and these were some
times a small Cima-inversa, taking up a fifth
Part of the Fascia, and sometimes a Baguette
taking up a seventh Part.
We may observe in
the Works of the Ancients, that the Linea
ments or Members of the several Orders were
often mixed, one borrowing from another, and
often with a very good Effect.
But they seem
ed chiefly pleased with an Architrave of only
two Fascias, which I take to be entirely Doric
without its Reglets and Drops.
ner of designing this Architrave was thus.
divided the whole Height into nine Parts, as
signing one Part and two Thirds to the Cy
The upper Fascia had four Parts and
one Third, and the lower Fascia the other three.
Half the upper Part of this Cymaise was taken
up with a Cima-inversa and a Fillet, and the
other half with a small Quarter-round.
upper Fascia for its Cymaise had a Baguette,
which took up an eighth Part of the Fascia,
and the lower Fascia had a Cima-recta of the
third Part of its whole Breadth.
Architrave lay the Rafters; but their Heads
did not appear out, as in the Doric Order, but
were cut away Perpendicular to the Archi
trave, and were covered with a flat Pannel
which I call the Freze, the Breadth of which
was the same as the Height of the Architrave
which is under it.
Upon this they used to
carve Vases and other Utensils belonging to
their Sacrifices, or Skulls of Oxen at certain
stated Distances, with Festoons of Flowers and
Fruits hanging between their Horns.
Freze had over it a Cima-recta, which was
never higher than sour Parts of the Freze, nor
lower than three.
Over this ran the Denticle,
four Parts high, sometimes carved and some
times left quite plain.
Above this was the
Ovolo, out of which came the Mutules, three
Parts in Height, and carved with Eggs, and
from hence came the Mutules supporting the
Drip, which was four Parts high and six Parts
and a half Broad in its Soffit, or that Face un
derneath which lay over the Mutules.
this Drip was a small Cima-recta, or else a Ba
guette two Parts in Height, and at the Top of
all was a Cymaise or Cima-inversa of three
Parts, or if you please of four.
In this Cy
maise both the Ionians and the Dorians used to
carve the Mouths of Lyons, which served for
Spouts to throw out the Water; but they took
Care that they should neither sprinkle any Body
that was going into the Temple, nor beat back
into any Part of the Temple itself; and for this
Reason they stopt up those Mouths that were
over the Doors and Windows.
ans added nothing either to the Architrave,
Freze or Cornice, that I can call to Mind, ex
cept only that they did not make their Mutu
les square like the Dorians, but with a Sort of
Sweep like a Cymaise, and made the Distances
between them equal to their Projecture from
the Naked of the Building.
In all other Re
spects they followed the Ionians. Thus much