A Mathematical and Philosphical Dictionary
, Academia, in Antiquity, a fine villa or pleasure house, in one of the submbs of Athens, about a mile from the city; where Plato, and the wise men who followed him, held assemblies for disputes and philosophical conference; which gave the name to the sect of Academics.
The house took its name, Academy, from one Academus, or Ecademus, a citizen of Athens, to whom it originally belonged: he lived in the time of Theseus; and here he used to have gymnastic sports or exercises.
The academy was farther improved by Cimon, and adorned with fountains, trees, shady walks, &c, for the convenience of the philosophers and men of learning, who here met to confer and dispute for their mutual improvement. It was surrounded with a wall by Hipparchus, the son of Pisistratus; and it was also used as the burying-place for illustrious persons, who had deserved well of the republic.
It was here that Plato taught his philosophy; and hence it was that all public places, destined for the assemblies of the learned and ingenious, have been since called Academies.
Sylla facrificed the delicious walks and groves of the academy, which had been planted by Cimon, to the ravages of war; and employed those very trees in constructing machines to batter the walls of the city which they had adorned.
Cicero too had a villa, or country retirement, near Puzzuoli, which he called by the same name, Academia. Here he used to entertain his philosophical friends; and here it was that he composed his Academical Questions, and his books De Naturâ Deorum.Academy
, among the moderns, denotes a regular society or company of learned persons, instituted under the protection of some prince, or other public authority, for the cultivation and improvement of arts or sciences.
Some authors confound Academy with University; but though much the same in Latin, they are very different things in English. An university is properly a body composed of graduates in the feveral faculties; of professors, who teach in the public schools; of regents or tutors, and students who learn under them, and aspire likewise to degrees. Whereas an academy is not intended to teach, or profess any art or science, but to improve it: it is not for novices to be instructed in, but for those that are more knowing; for persons of learning to confer in, and communicate their lights and discoveries to each other, for their mutual benefit and improvement.
The first modern academy we read of, was established by Charlemagne, by the advice of Alcuin, an English monk: it was composed of the chief geniuses of the court, the emperor himself being a member. In their academical conferences, every person was to give some account of the ancient authors he had read; and each one assumed the name of some ancient author, that pleased him most, or some celebrated person of antiquity. Alcuin, from whose letters we learn these particulars, took that of Flaccus, the surname of Horace; a young lord, named Augilbert, took that of Homer; Adelard, bishop of Corbie, was called Augustin; Recluse, bishop of Mentz, was Dametas; and the king himself, David.
Since the revival of learning in Europe, academies have multiplied greatly, most nations being furnished with several, and from their communications the chief improvements have been made in the arts and sciences, and in cultivating natural knowledge. There are now academies for almost every art, or species of knowledge; but I shall give a short account only of those institutions of this kind, which regard the cultivation of subjects mathematical or philosophical, which are the proper and peculiar objects of our undertaking.
Italy abounds more in academies than all the world besides; there being enumerated by Jarckius not less than sive hundred and fifty in all; and even to the amount of twenty-five in Milan itself. These are however mostly of a private and inferior nature; the consequence of their too great number.
The first academy of a philosophical kind was established at Naples, in the house of Baptista Porta, about the year 1560, under the name of Academy Secretorum Naturæ; being formed for the improvement of natural and mathematical knowledge. This was succeeded by the
Academy of Lyncei, founded at Rome by prince Frederick Cesi, towards the end of the same century. It was rendered famous by the notable discoveries made by several of its members; among whom was the celebrated Galileo Galilei.
Several other academies contributed also to the advancement of the sciences; but it was by speculations rather than by repeated experiments on the phenomena of nature: such were the academy of Bessarian at Rome, and that of Laurence de Medicis at Florence, in the 15th century; and in the 16th were that of Infiammati at Padua, of Vegna Juoli at Rome, of Ortolani at Placentia, and of Umidi at Florence. The first of these studied fire and pyrotechnia, the second wine and vineyards, the third pot-herbs and gardens, the fourth water and hydraulics. To these may be added that of Venice, called La Veneta, and sounded by Frederick Badoara, a noble Venetian; another in the same city, of which Campegio, bishop of Feltro, appears to have been the chief; also that of Cosenza, or La Consentina, of which Bernadin Telesio, Sertorio Quatromanni, Paulus Aquinas, Julio Cavalcanti, and Fabio Cicali, celebrated philosophers, were the chief members. The compositions of all these academies, of the 16th century, were good in their kind; but none of them comparable to those of the Lyncei.
Academy del Cimento, that is, of Experiments, arose at Florence, some years after the death of Torricelli, namely in the year 1657, under the protection of prince Leopold of Tuscany, afterwards cardinal de Medicis, and brother to the Grand Duke Ferdinand the Second. Galileo, Toricelli, Aggiunti, and Viviani had prepared the way sor it: and some of its chief members were Paul del Buono, who in 1657 invented the instrument for trying the incompressibility of water, namely a thick globular shell of gold, having its cavity filled with water; then the globe being compressed by a strong screw, the water came through the pores of the gold rather than yield to the compression: also, Alphonsus Borelli, well known for his ingenious treatise De Motu Animalium, and other works; Candide del Buono, brother of Paul; Alexander Marsili, Vincent Viviani, Francis Rhedi, and the Count Laurence Magalotti, secretary of this academy, who pub- lished a volume of their curious experiments in 1667, under the title of Saggi di Naturali Esperienze; a copy of which being presented to the Royal Society, it was translated into English by Mr. Waller, and published at London, in 4to, 1684: A curious collection of tracts, containing ingenious experiments on the pressure of the air, on the compressing of water, on cold, heat, ice, magnets, electricity, odours, the motion of sound, projectiles, light, &c, &c. But we have heard little or nothing more of the academy since that time. It may not be improper to observe here, that the Grand Duke Ferdinand, above mentioned, was no mean philosopher and chemist, and that he invented thermometers, of which the construction and use may be seen in the collection of the academy del Cimento.
Academy degl' Inquieti at Bologna, incorporated afterwards into that della traccia in the same city, followed the example of that del Cimento. The members met at the house of the abbot Antonio Sampieri; and here Geminiano Montanari, one of the chief members, made excellent discourses on mathematical and philosophical subjects, some parts of which were published in 1667, under the title of Pensieri Fisico-Mathematici. This academy afterwards met in an apartment of Eustachio Manfredi; and then in that of Jacob Sandri; but it arrived at its chief lustre while its assemblies were held in the palace Marsilli.
Academy of Rossano, in the kingdom of Naples, called La Societa Scientifica Rossanese degl' Incuriosi, was founded about the year 1540, under the name of Naviganti; and was renewed under that of Spensierati by Camillo Tuscano, about the year 1600. It was then an academy of belles-lettres, but was afterwards transformed into an academy of sciences, on the solicitation of the learned abbot Don Giacinto Gimma; who, being made president under the title of promotergeneral, in 1695, gave it a new set of regulations. He divided the academists into several classes, namely, grammarians, rhetoricians, poets, historians, philosophers, physicians, mathematicians, lawyers, and divines; with a separate class for cardinals and persons of quality. To be admitted a member, it was necessary that the candidate have degrees in some faculty. Members, in the beginning of their books, are not allowed to take the title of academist without a written permission from the president, which is not granted till the work has been examined by the censors of the academy. This permission is the highest honour the academy can confer; since they hereby, as it were, adopt the work, and engage to answer for it against any criticisms that may be made upon it. The president himself is not exempt from this law: and it is not permitted that any academist publish any thing against the writings of another, without leave obtained from the society.
There have been several other academies of sciences in Italy, but which have not subsisted long, for want of being supported by the princes. Such were at Naples that of the Investiganti, founded about the year 1679, by the marquis d'Arena, Don Andrea Concubletto; and that which, about the year 1698, met in the palace of Don Lewis della Cerda, the duke de Medina, and viceroy of Naples: at Rome, that of Fisico-Matematici, which in 1686 met in the house of Signior Ciampini: at Verona, that of Aletosili, founded the same year by Signior Joseph Gazola, and which met in the house of the count Serenghi della Cucca: at Brescia, that of Filesotici, founded the same year for the cultivation of philosophy and mathematics, and terminated the year following: that of F. Francisco Lana, a jesuit of great skill in these sciences: and lastly that of Fisico-Critici at Sienna, founded in 1691, by Signior Peter Maria Gabrielli.
Some other academies, still subsisting in Italy, repair with advantage the loss of the former. One of the principal is the academy of Filarmonici at Verona, supported by the marquis Scipio Maffei, one of the most learned men in Italy; the members of which academy, though they cultivate the belles lettres, do not neglect the sciences. The academy of Ricovrati at Padua still subsists with reputation; in which; from time to time, learned discourses are held on philosophical subjects. The like may be said of the academy of the Muti di Reggio, at Modena. At Bologna is an academy of sciences, in a flourishing condition, known by the name of The Institute of Bologna; which was founded in 1712 by count Marsigli, for cultivating physics, mathematics, medicine, chemistry, and natural history. The history of it is written by M. de Limiers, from memoirs furnished by the founder himself. Among the new academies, the first place, after the Institute of Bologna, is given to that of the Countess Donna Clelio Grillo Boromeo, one of the most learned ladies of the age, to whom Signior Gimma dedicates his literary history of Italy. She had lately established an academy of experimental philosophy in her palace at Milan; of which Signior Vallisnieri was nominated president, and had already drawn up the regulations for it, though we do not find it has yet taken place. In the number of these academies may also be ranked the assembly of the learned, who of late years met at Venice in the house of Signior Cristino Martinelli, a noble Venetian, and a great patron of learning.
Academia Cosmografica, or that of the Argonauts, was instituted at Venice, at the instance of F. Coronelli, for the improvement of geography; the design being to procure exact maps, geographical, topographical, hydrographical, and ichnographical, of the celestial as well as terrestrial globe, and their several regions or parts, together with geographical, historical, and astronomical descriptions accommodated to them: to promote which purposes, the several members oblige themselves, by their subscription, to take one copy or more of each piece published under the direction of the academy; and to advance the money, or part of it, to defray the charge of publication. To this end there are three societies settled, namely at Venice, Paris, and Rome; the first under F. Moro, provincial of the Minorites of Hungary; the second under the abbot Laurence au Rue Payenne au Marais; the third under F. Ant. Baldigiani, jesuit, professor of mathematics in the Roman college; to whom those address themselves who are willing to engage in this design. The Argonauts number near 200 members in the different countries of Europe; and their device is the terraqueous globe, with the motto Plus ultra. All the globes, maps, and geographical writings of F. Coronelli have been published at the expence of this academy.
The Academy of Apatists, or Impartial Academy, deserves to be mentioned on account of the extent of its plan, including universally all arts and sciences. It holds from time to time public meetings at Florence, where any person, whether academist or not, may read his works, in whatever form, language, or subject; the academy receiving all with the greatest impartiality.
In France there are many academies for the improvement of arts and sciences. F. Mersenne, it is said, gave the first idea of a philosophical academy in France, about the beginning of the seventeenth century, by the conferences of mathematicians and naturalists, held occasionally at his lodgings; at which Des Cartes, Gassendus, Hobbes, Roberval, Pascal, Blondel, and others, assisted. F. Mersenne proposed to each of them certain problems to examine, or certain experiments to be made. These private assemblies were succeeded by more public ones, formed by M. Monmort, and M. Thevenot, the celebrated traveller. The French example animated several Englishmen of rank and learning to erect a kind of philosophical academy at Oxford, towards the close of Cromwell's administration; which after the restoration was erected, by public authority, into a Royal Society: an account of which see under the word. The English example, in its turn, animated the French. In 1666 Louis XIV, assisted by the counsels of M. Colbert, founded an academy of fciences at Paris, called the
Academie Royale des Sciences, or Royal Academy of Sciences, for the improvement of philosophy, mathematics, chemistry, medicine, belles-lettres, &c. Among the principal members, at the commencement in 1666, were the respectable names of Carcavi, Huygens, Roberval, Frenicle, Auzout, Picard, Buot, Du Hamel the Secretary, and Mariotte. There was a perfect equality among all the members, and many of them received salaries from the king, as at present. By the rules of the academy, every class was to meet twice a week; the philosophers and geometricians were to meet, separately, every Wednesday, and then both together on the Saturday, in a room of the king's library, where the philosophical and mathematical books were kept: the history class was to meet on the Monday and Thursday in the room of the historical books; and the class of belles-lettres on the Tuesday and Friday: and on the first Thursday of every month all the classes met together, and by their secretaries made a mutual report of what had been transacted by each class during the preceding month.
In 1699, on the application of the president, the abbé Bignon, the academy received, under royal authority and protection, a new form and constitution; by the articles of which, the academy was to consist of four sorts of members, namely honorary, pensionary, associates, and eleves. The honorary class to consist of ten persons, and the other three classes of twenty persons each. The president to be chosen annually out of the honorary class, and the secretary and treasurer to be perpetual, and of the pensionary class. The meetings to be twice a week, on the Wednesday and Saturday; besides two public meetings in the year.
Of the pensionaries, or those who receive salaries, three to be geometricians, three astronomers, three mechanists, three anatomists, three botanists, and three chemists, the other two being the secretary and treasurer. Of the twenty associates, of which twelve to be French, and eight might be foreigners, two were to cultivate geometry, two astronomy, two mechanics, two anatomy, two botany, and two chemistry. Of the twenty eleves, one to be attached to each pensionary, and to cultivate his peculiar branch of science. The pensionaries and their eleves to reside at Paris. No regulars nor religious to be admitted, except into the honorary class: nor any person to be admitted a pensioner who was not known by some considerable work, or some remarkable discovery.
In 1716 the Duke of Orleans, then regent of France, by the king's authority made some alteration in their constitution. The class of eleves was suppressed; and instead of them were instituted twelve adjuncts, two to each of the six classes of pensioners. The honorary members were increased to twelve: and a class of fix free associates was made, who were not under the obligation of cultivating any particular branch of science, and in this class only could the regulars or religious be admitted. A president and vice-president to be appointed annually from the honorary class, and a director and sub-director annually from that of the pensioners. And no person to be allowed to make use of his quality of academician, in the title of any of his books that he published, unless such book were first approved by the academy.
The academy has for a device or motto, Invenit & perficit. And the meetings, which were formerly held in the king's library, have since the year 1699 been held in a fine hall of the old Louvre.
Finally, in the year 1785 the king confirmed, by letters patent, dated April 23, the establishment of the academy of sciences, making the sollowing alterations, and adding classes of agriculture, natural history, mineralogy, and physics; incorporating the associates and adjuncts, and limiting to six the members of each class, namely three pensioners and three associates; by which the former receive an increase of salary, and the latter approach nearer to becoming pensioners.
By the articles of this instrument it is ordained, that the academy shall consist of eight classes, namely, that of geometry, 2d astronomy, 3d mechanics, 4th general physics, 5th anatomy, 6th chemistry and metallurgy, 7th botany and agriculture, and 8th natural history and mineralogy. That each class shall remain irrevocably sixed at six members; namely, three pensioners and three associates, independent however of <*> perpetual secretary and treasurer, of twelve free-associates and of eight associate strangers or foreigners, the same as before, except that the adjunct-geographer for the future be called the associate-geographer.
The classes at first to be filled by the following persons, namely, that of geometry by Messieurs de Borda, Jeaurat, Vandermonde, as pensioners; and Messieurs Cousin, Meusnier, and Charles, as associates: that of astronomy by Messieurs le Monnier, de la Lande, and le Gentil, as pensioners; and Messieurs Messier, de Cassini, and Dagelat, as associates: that of mechanics by Messieurs l'abbe Bossut, Pabbe Rochon, and de la Place, as pensioners; and Messieurs Coulomb, le Gendre, and Perrier, as associates: that of general physics by Messieurs Leroy, Brisson, and Bailly, as pensioners; and Messieurs Monge, Mechain, and Quatremere, as associates: that of anatomy by Messieurs Daubluton, Tenon, and Portal, as pensioners; and Messieurs Sabatier, Vicq-d'azir, and Broussonet, as associates: that of chemistry and metallurgy by Messieurs Cadet, Lavoisier, and Beaume, as pensioners; and Messieurs Cornette, Bertholet, aud Fourcroy, as associates: that of botany and agriculture by Messieurs Guettard, Fougeroux, and Adanson, as pensioners; and Messieurs de Jussieu, de la Marck, and Desfontaines, as associates: and that of natural history and mineralogy by Messieurs Desmaretz, Saye, and l'abbe de Gua, as pensioners; and Messieurs Darcet, l'abbe Haui, and l'abbe Tessier, as associates. All names respectable in the common-wealth of letters; and from whom the world might expect still farther improvements in the several branches of science.
The late M. Rouille de Meslay, counsellor of the parliament of Paris, founded two prizes, the one of 2500 livres, the other of 2000 livres, which the academy distributed alternately every year: the subjects of the former prize respecting physical astronomy, and of the latter, navigation and commerce.
The world is highly indebted to this academy for the many valuable works they have executed, or published, both individually and as a body collectively, especially by their memoirs, making upwards of a hundred volumes in 4to, with the machines, indexes, &c. in which may be found most excellent compositions in every branch of science. They publish a volume of these memoirs every year, with the history of the academy, and eloges of remarkable men lately deceased: also a general index to the volumes every ten years. An alteration was introduced into the volume for 1783, which it seems is to be continued in future, by omitting, in the history, the minutes or extracts from the registers, containing some preliminary account of the subjects of the memoires; but still however retaining the eloges of distinguished men, lately deceased.
M. l'abbe Rozier also has published in four 4to volumes, an excellent index of the contents of all the volumes, and the writings of all the members, from the beginning of their publications to the year 1770; with convenient blank spaces for continuing the articles in writing.
Their history also, to the year 1697, was written by M. Du Hamel; and after that time continued from year to year by M. Fontenelle, under the following titles, Du Hamel Historiæ Regiæ Academiæ Scientiarum, Paris, 4to. Histoire de l'Academie Royale des Sciences, avec les Memoires de Mathematique & de Physique, tirez des Registres de l'Academie, Paris, 4to. Histoire de l'Academie Royale des Sciences depuis son etablissement en 1666, jusqu'en 1699, en 13 tomes, 4to. A new history, from the institution of the academy, to the period from whence M. de Fontenelle commences, has been formed; with a series of the works published under the name of this academy, during the first interval.
Since the foregoing account was written, it is said the Academy has been suppressed and abolished, by the present convention of France.
Besides the academies in the capital, there are a great many in other parts of France. The Academie Royale, at Caen, was established by letters patent in the year 1705; but it had its rise fifty years earlier in private conferences, held first in the house of M. de Brieux. M. de Segrais retiring to this city, to spend the rest of his days, restored and gave new lustre to their meetings. In 1707 M. Foucault, intendant of the generality of Caen, procured the king's letters patent for erecting them into a perpetual academy, of which M. Foucault was to be protector for the time, and the choice afterwards left to the members, the number of whom was fixed to thirty, chosen for this time by M. Foucault. But besides the thirty original members, leave<*>was given to add six supernumerary members, from the ecclesiastical communities in that city.
At Toulouse is the Academie des jeux floraux, composed of forty persons, the oldest of the kingdom: besides an academy of sciences and belles-lettres, founded in 1750.
At Montpelier is the royal society of sciences, which since 1708 makes but one body with the royal academy of sciences at Paris.
There are also other academies at Bourdeaux, founded in 1703, at Soissons in 1674, at Marseilles in 1726, at Lyons in 1700, at Pau in Bearn in 1721, at Montauban in 1744, at Angers in 1685, at Amiens in 1750, at Villefranche in 1679, at Dijon in 1740, at Nimes in 1682, at Besançon in 1752, at Chalons in 1775, at Rochelle in 1734, at Beziers in 1723, at Rouen in 1744, at Metz in 1760, at Arras in 1773, &c. The number of these academies is continually augmenting; and even in such towns as have no academies, the literati form themselves into literary societies, having nearly the same objects and pursuits.
In Germany and other parts of Europe, there are various academies of sciences, &c. The
Academie Royale des Sciences & des Belles Lettres of Prussia, was founded at Berlin, in the year 1700, by Frederic I. king of Prussia, of which the famous M. Leibnitz was the first president, and its great promoter. The academy received a new form, and a new set of statutes in 1710; by which it was ordained, that the president shall be one of the counsellors of state; and that the members be divided into four classes; the first to cultivate physics, medicine, and chemistry; the second, mathematics, astronomy, and mechanics; the third, the German language, and the history of the country; and the fourth, oriental learning, particularly as it may concern the propagation of the gospel among infidels. That each class elect a director for themselves, who shall hold his post for life. That they meet in the castle called the New Marshal, the classes to meet in their turns, one each week. And that the members of any of the classes have free access into the assemblies of the rest. Several volumes of their transactions have been published in Latin, from time to time, under the title of Miscellanea Berolinensia.
In 1743 the late famous Frederic II. king of Prussia, made great alterations and improvements in the academy. Instead of a great lord or minister of state, who had usually presided over the academy, he wisely judged that office would be better filled by a man of letters; and he honoured the French academy of sciences by fixing upon one of its members for a president, namely M. Maupertuis, a distinguished character in the literary world, and whose conduct in improving the academy was a proof of the sound judgment of the king, who at the same time made new regulations for the academy, and took the title of its Protector. From that time the transactions of the academy have been published, under the title of Histoire de l'Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles Lettres à Berlin, much in the manner of those of the French academy of sciences, and in the French language; and the volumes are now commonly published annually. Besides the ordinary private meetings of the academy, it has two public ones in the year, in January and May, at the latter of which is given a prize gold medal, of the value of 50 ducats, or about 20 guineas. The subject of the prize is successively physics, mathematics, metaphysics, and general literature. For the academy has this peculiar circumstance, that it embraces also metaphysics, logic, and morality; having one class particularly appropriated to these objects, called the class of Speculative Philosophy.
Imperial Academy of Petersburgh. This academy was projected by the Czar Peter I, commonly called Peter the Great, who in so many other instances also was instrumental in raising Russia from the state of barbarity in which it had been immerged for so many ages. Having visited France in 1717, and among other things informed himself of the advantages of an academy of arts and sciences, he resolved to establish one in his new capital, whither he had drawn by noble encouragements several learned strangers, and made other preparations, when his death prevented him from fully accomplishing that object, in the beginning of the year 1725. Those preparations and intentions however were carried into execution the same year, by the establishment of the academy, by his consort the czarina Catherine, who succeeded him. And soon after the academy composed the first volume of their works, published in 1728, under the title of Commentarii Academiæ Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanæ; which they continued almost annually till 1746, the whole amounting to 14 volumes, which were published in Latin, and the subjects divided and classed under the following heads, namely mathematics, physics, history, and astronomy. Their device a tree bearing fruit not ripe, with the modest motto paullatim.
Most part of the strangers who composed this academy being dead, or having retired, it was rather in a languishing state at the beginning of the reign of the empress Elizabeth, when the count Rasomowski was happily appointed president, who was instrumental in recovering its vigour and labours. This empress renewed and altered its constitution, by letters patent dated July 24, 1747, giving it a new form and regulations. It consists of two chief parts, an academy, and a university, having regular professors in the several saculties, who read lectures as in our colleges. The ordinary assemblies are held twice a week, and public or solemn ones thrice in the year; in which an account is given of what has been done in the private ones. The academy has a noble building for their meetings, &c, with a good apparatus of instruments, a sine library, observatory, &c. Their first volume, after this renovation, was published for the years 1747 and 1748, and they have been fince continued from year to year, now to the amount of near thirty volumes, under the title of Novi Commentarii Academiæ Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanæ. They are printed in the Latin language, and contain many excellent compositions in all the sciences, especially the mathematical papers of the late excellent M. L. Euler, which always made a considerable portion of every volume. The subjects are classed under heads in the following order, mathematics, physico-mathematics, physics, which include botany, anatomy, &c, and astronomy; the whole prefaced by historical extracts, or minutes, relating to each paper or memoir, after the manner of the volumes of the French academy; but wanting however the eloges of deceased eminent men. Their device is a heap of ripe fruits piled on a table, with the motto En addit fructus ætate recentes.
Imperial and Royal Academy of Sciences and Belles Lettres, at Brussels. This academy was founded in the year 1773; and several volumes of their memoirs have been published.
Royal Academy of Sciences, at Stockholm, was instituted in 1739, and since that time it has published about sixty volumes of transactions, quarterly, in 8vo, in the Swedish language.
For an account of the Royal Society of London, and several other similar institutions, see the words Journal, Society, &c.
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, was established in 1780 by the council and house of representatives in the province of Massachuset's Bay, for promoting the knowledge of the antiquities of America, and of the natural history of the country; for determining the uses to which its various natural productions may be applied; for encouraging medicinal discoveries, mathematical disquisitions, philosophical enquiries and experiments, astronomical, meteorological, and geographical observations, and improvements in agriculture, manufactures, and commerce; and, in short, for cultivating every art and science, which may tend to advance the interest, honour, dignity, and happiness, of a free, independent, and virtuous people. The members of this academy are never to be less than forty, nor more than two hundred.
Academy is also used among us for a kind of collegiate school, or seminary; where youth are instructed in the liberal arts and sciences in a private way: now indeed it is used for all kinds of schools.
Frederic 1, king of Prussia, established an academy at Berlin in 1703, for educating the young nobility of the court, suitable to their extraction. The expence of the students was very moderate, the king having undertaken to pay the extraordinaries. This illustrious school, which was then called the academy of princes, has now lost much of its first splendour.
The Romans had a kind of military academies established in all the cities of Italy, under the name of Campi Martis. Here the youth were admitted to be trained sor war at the public expence. And the Greeks, besides academies of this kind, had military professors, called Tactici, who taught all the higher offices of war, &c.
We have two royal academies of this kind in England, the expences of which are defrayed by the government; the one at Woolwich, for the artillery and military engineers; and the other at Portsmouth, for the navy. The former was established by his late majesty king George II, by warrants dated April the 30th and November the 18th, 1741, for instructing persons belonging to the military part of the ordnance, in the several branches of mathematics, fortification, &c, proper to qualify them for the service of artillery and the office of engineers. This institution is under the direction of the master-general and board of ordnance for the time being: and at first the lectures of the masters in the academy were attended by the practitioner-engineers, with the officers, serjeants, corporals, and private men of the artillery, besides the eadets. At present however none are educated there but the gentlemen cadets, to the number of 90 or 100, where they receive an education perhaps not to be obtained or purchased for money in any part of the world. The master-general of the ordnance is always captain of the cadets' company, and governor of the academy; under him are a lieutenant-governor, and an inspector of studies. The masters have been gradually increased, from two or three at first, now to the number of twelve, namely, a professor of mathematics, and two other mathematical masters, a professor of fortification, and an assistant, two drawing masters, two French masters, with masters for fencing, dancing, and chemistry. This institution is of the greatest consequence to the state, and it is hardly credible that so important an object should be accomplished at so trifling an expence. It is to be lamented however that the academy is fixed in so unhealthy a situation; that the lecture rooms and cadets' barracks are so small as to be insufsicient for the purposes of the institution; and that the salaries of the professors and masters should be so inadequate to their labours, and the benefit of their services.
The Royal Naval Academy at Portsmouth was founded by George I, in 1722, for instructing young gentlemen in the sciences useful for navigation, to breed officers for the royal navy. The establishment is under the direction of the board of admiralty, who give salaries to two masters, by one of whom the students are boarded and lodged, the expence of which is defrayed by their own friends, nothing being supplied by the government but their education.